Radiosity and Raytracing

Posted in 3D Development Software on June 26, 2008 by angelus13

Radiosity takes into account all indirect lighting in the room as well as direct light so that any shadows that are cast are softer becase the indirect light will change the shadow’s cast but standard lighting deals in purely in direct lighting (see example:), as a result standard light isn’t realstic it just shows a single direct light from a chosen light source well Radiosity will show a very realistic lighting just like real life.




the strenth of the of the light is specified in photometric units (lumens, candelas and so on).

the left image contains no radiosity, there is lighting but it’s very simple lighting. there right image contain radiosity, if you noticethe shadows look alot softer and the lighting looks alot brighter. Radiosity does have some weaknesses it changes with sudden changes in visiblity and hard edged shadows. the up side to radiosity is it looks alot more realistic, the main problem with radiosity is the time it takes to render is immense.



Ray Tracing

Ray Tracing is a global illumination created around a randering method.when the rays of light hit an object one of 3 things can happen absorption, reflection and refraction. Ray-tracing mimics this. It traces rays of light from the eye back through the image plane into the scene.


Ray-tracing and radiosity work together, and help cover each others disadvantages. Radiostiy is good with diffuse-to-diffuse inter-reflections. Its disadvantages are that its 3d mesh takes up memory and it doesn’t account for specular reflections. Ray-tracing is good with rendering specular reflections. Its disadvantages are that it takes long amounts of time and it doesn’t account for diffuse reflections.






CG History Timeline

Posted in CG History Timeline on November 29, 2007 by angelus13


Before 1960’s

  • some of the images that were created before the 1960’s were created with a perticular look to them one of the reason’s why these images looked so old fashioned was because of the dated and limited technology. they also had bad resolution and detail.


  • The first video was made called ‘spacewars’ created by Steve Russel it was created for the pdp-1
  • 1st computer generated film was created by Edward Zajac
  • computer space arcade game built by Nolan Bushnell
  • 1st use of CGI in an advert called MAGI for IBM


  • The use of CGI for the first time in the film star war’s IV: a new hope and the use of 2D composistion to show the characters in the background

  • during this era there was also a improve in the animation of facial and hand movements to allow a new degree of realism.


  • CGI was being used for shading more commonely during this era
  • Tron was also created in the early 80#s which was a film almost completly made from CGI and was also the longest CGI film made to that date
  • also in the late 80’s the first full computer generated advert was created called ‘Brilliance’ (sexy robot)


  •  in the 90’s CGI really started to pick up and with CGI being used more commonly in film it set the bar higher for other CGI film director’s
  • CGI was used in Terminator 2 for the robotic pieces and also for the liquid terminator who is the main villian of the film the CGI gave him a liquid look like quicksilver.
  • also ‘Jurassic Park’ created in the 90’s used CGI for the dinosaurs and most importatly the T-rex in the film
  • In the late 90’s the popular animated CGI film ‘toy story’ was created the stunning CGI effects left this as one of the most imporant CGI films ever made
  • Also in the late 90’s the use of CGI in video games had really taken off with consoles like Playstation and the Nintendo 64 games like Mario 64 and Spyro were really showing what a new era of gaming was going to look like.

2000 and the furture

  • The year 2000 and beyond have so far held many milestones for the CGI world with new high graphic films and new state of the art graphics being used in games products such as ‘Finding Nemo’ and ‘Over the hedge’ film wise and video games like ‘Assassin’s Creed’ and ‘Final Fantasy 13’ it shows that the world of CGI still has some distance to go before it will be mastered

Hayao Miyazaki

Posted in Hayao Miyazaki on November 29, 2007 by angelus13

Hayao Miyazaki – Follower

Hayao Miyazaki

Hayao Miyazaki is the Co-founder of the popular japanease animation company Studio Ghibli. He has directed many animated films some of his films have won many awards such as ‘Sprited Away’ including the second oscar ever awarded for ‘Best Animated Feature’ it also won the ‘Golden Bear’ award at the 2002 Berlin International Film Festival.

Miyazaki attended Gakushuin University where he studied political science and economics during this time he was a member of the ‘Children’s Literature research club’ which was the closest thing to a comic book at the time, in 1963 he got a job at Toei Animation in 1964 he became the chief of Toei’s labour union.He was born January 5, 1941 in Tokyo, Japan.

Director, screenplay, and storyboards


Cartesian co-ordinate system

Posted in Cartesian Coordinate system on November 29, 2007 by angelus13

The computer screen is a 2D environment and when working with 2D graphics whe  working with 3D and software applications, the cartesian co-ordinate system is used to create the illusion of working with 3D space.A french mathematician and philospher Rene Descartes created the the 2D system there are only 2 axis the X axis and the Y axis the X axis is horizontal and the Y axis is vertical they form the XYplane.The point where X and Y meet is called the origin or the 0 axis.early in the 19th century the Z axis or the 3rd dimension was added.The 3rd axis (Z) is the viewpoint that adds the third dimension and adds depth.The format for a point is (X,Y,Z). In the 3d Design program 3DS Max the views are based on the cartesian system are called viewports. The views are classified as orthographic and they are only 2 axis in the view port while perspective shows 3 axis in the, front and left are orthographic view ports.

3d Production pipeline

Posted in Uncategorized on November 29, 2007 by angelus13

Awaiting report

Konami Production Pipeline

Posted in Production Pipeline on October 4, 2007 by angelus13

Research to follow:::

Konami was founded in 1969 by Kagemasa Kōzuki The name of the company is made by the second name of all the orginal founding staff Kagemasa zuki, Yoshinobu Nakama, Hiro Matsuda, and Shokichi Ishihara after the orginal Silent Hill game was released (1999) and it became very popular they formed a small department for just the Silent Hill franchise called ‘Team Silent’ the members of this team are :-


  • Akira Yamaoka: the series’ musical composer
  • Akihiro Imamura: Producer of Silent Hill 2 and Silent Hill 4, System programmer on the original Silent Hill, Silent Hill 2, and Silent Hill 4.
  • Masahiro Ito: Worked as “Monster Design” in Silent Hill and Silent Hill 2, designing the monster Pyramid Head, Art Director for Silent Hill 3.
  • Masashi Tsuboyama: Silent Hill 2 Art Director, Silent Hill 4 Director.
  • Suguru Murakoshi: Silent Hill 2 Drama Director, Silent Hill 4 Director.
  • Takayoshi Sato: Character Designer and CGI Movie Editor for Silent Hill and Silent Hill 2
  •  1. phase 1


    Most ideas for games are created from inside the company. It is very rare but there are also times when they use sources from outside the company from other peoples ideas such as film games and also games based on books and other media sources. The ideas for Silent Hill were slightly based on the surreal movie ‘Jacobs Ladder’ which is about as man called Jacob who believes he is having odd dreams but in the end *spoiler* it turns out that he actaully died in the vietatnam war and has been living in hell since then *end spoiler* so the idea that Team Silent used was brought in from an outside source which is a rare thing.

    Phase 2


    The next part of game creation will be script writing and stroyboard design. This also includes drawing up the basic images for the scenes and basic character concept. A team of many writers will work on the storyline and this will be the start of level development and game layout and also of the character designs.

    The pre-production team is resricted by what the game is about or if it based or somthing else then they are restricted by what the other games/films included before them. If the game is an orginal concept then they have a complete freedom in what they can create. The story and characters are only limited by the imaginations of the people on the pre-production team.

    If the game that is being created is based of another company like Disney then they characters must look and do what they would normally do. If the Disney franchise and if the pre-production team strays from the company’s ideas then there will be trouble.

    If the pre-production team must work on a game that is a sports game then they have to create a game that follows the rules and regulations that are used in real sports game so if it was an official hockey game then they couldn’t have players flying or turning into monsters or anything along those lines because of the rules that are in place.

    The most important bit of game creation is the storyline as this narrates the story and also gives the characters depth and tells the story. If the storyline is poorly written it really looks bad on the game and is easily noticeable. If the game is a sports game or a game with lots of minigames on it then they can skip the storyline step of game creation altogether.

    After the storyline is written then they have to create a storyboard which is just a visual representation of the storyline with sketches and initial character designs it also contains brief text of what is happening is each scene of the game.

    The third part of pre-production is the piecing together of a comprehensive design document for the game. In addition to including the storyline and storyboards, the design document will also incorporate the designers overall blue print for exactly how the game will be played, what each menu or screen in the game will look like, what the controls for the character or characters are, what the games goal is, and the rules for how you win/lose in the game, and maps of the different worlds or levels within the game.

    At this part of pre-production they begin to figure out key input and what buttons pressed will do what in  the game and the way the gamers will interact with the in game menu, also they start to figure out what each word will look exactly and also what can be interacted with in game, and also what NPC’s will do to react to the character the player is playing and what thier speech should be. This helps the programmers figure out what needs to be coded.

    The pre-production team also keep in mind the hardwares limitations during the creation of the game so that they don’t end up creating a game that causes the console to freeze or run slower and this helps the game get created on other systems.

    3. Production

    After the game enters the production part of creation it gets a far larger team to work on it and the real creation of the game can start to be achieved.

     At this point the producer starts to make sure everyone is working together to finish the game he/she starts to pull all the pieces together into a finished puzzle, the main job of the producer is to create timetables that the team must meet and keep to and also to make sure that all the goals are met.

    During this time the game designers are really starting to make the game and during this time they are really looking for errors and any damage done to the games levels because this is the best time to fix any broken ideas.

    During this stage the artists will be using programs like 3DS max and Maya. These programs will often be used to model all of the games environments, objects, characters and menus – essentially everything you see in the game.

    The artist take a lot of time creating each character and piece of the enviroment to look as close to what the real item would like. If they were creating a real life actor then they would have to model the actor to as close the real actor as possible and this would take alot of time.

    Also at this time the progamming ‘gurus’ are working on creating the games intellegence and AI to make the NPC’s as smart as possible to add difficulty and realism to the game. They are in charge of creating an in-game library which houses all the in-game items and characters to be used in the game.

    The AI is a very important part of the game and is usually worked on by a separate part of the team of AI programmers. They work on all of the physics, collisions, interactions, and movement of every single character and object in the game. Also, they design how characters interact with the objects and environment on screen.

    And finally for production they start to add the special effects and the WOW factor to the game. They also start to cut out lighting and environment effects to lower the bit count so the game will be supported on the console they are creating it for.

    4. Post-Production

    For the start of Post-Production they create an alpha version which is then sent to a test team who then test every aspect of the game to test for bugs and faults and spelling mistakes and anything that would be considered wrong with the game so that before is sent out it can be corrected. Once all of the major bugs and flaws have been sorted out a Beta version of the game is created and is sent back to the game testers where they check the game out completly. If they find any bugs they are marked from A to C (A types bugs are considered major and must be resolved while C type bugs are minor and may be left in the game).

    Once all that is done the finally bersion of the game is packaged and sent to video game stores.